Friday, November 15, 2019
Social Class And A Persons Life Chances
Social Class And A Persons Life Chances Before the start of industrial capitalism, in a pre-industrial societies work is referred to as a general way activities directed at satisfying the human need for survival. Which were all non-industrial, work such as hunting, gathering or farming. Starting in the 18th century and continuing into the 19th century work has become regular paid employment. The simple rural lives were exchanged by mass production of goods. Industrialisation led to urbanisation, it changed the medieval customs, beliefs and ideals. The term industrial revolution is used to describe this transformation. Industrial Productive activity involved Factory systems and mechanisation powered by energy sources that is undertaken outside the home in a building or factory, Where workers has to work as industrial labourers under hazardous conditions. Karl Marx argued the capitalist who are the owners of the means of production, must essentially exploit the workers for maintaining the existence of the structure and organ isation. The capitalism is a system based on profit, within the capitalism the workers are given a paid wage enabling them to survive. It is necessary that capitalism continue to grow, to give the mass population the surplus wealth. It depends on continual growth and, therefore, it makes sense to give the mass of the population surplus wealth for enable them to buy goods; the more goods they buy, the more the system can produce. Marx was one the first social theorist to examine in to the conditions of work in factories that were emerging during the industrial revolution, looking at how the transition from self-working craftwork to working for a boss in a factory resulted in alienation and deskilling. For Marx capitalism created the world of work then turned it against the workers, not only workers were prevented from realising themselves but they developed a system where work became the cause of alienation and exploitation. Max used the term alienation to describe what it were like to be wage workers under industrial capitalism. He used four type of alienation in factory workers: first alienated from theÃ objects of their work as job becomes repetitive and automatic. Second workers are alienated fromÃ the activity of working; they are forced to work for them. Third Workers are alienated from theÃ chance to determine what it is to be human and finally Alienation from other workers, not having to spend t ime with people you enjoy and are forced to work with people even if you like them or not. Braverman similarly mirrored most of Karl Marxs writing and applied it to work in the twentieth century. Braverman claimed that many jobs in the capitalist economy were subjected to a process of deskilling; this is where professional knowledge becomes replaced by machines and automation and tendency toward specialisation of task. He describes this as the period of monopoly capitalism. Taylorism exemplified this managerial strategy. At the beginning of the twentieth century Henry Ford combines the organisational innovation of taylorism, which introduced special machine tools that standardised production in a continuous flow in the form of assembly line. It was used on a large scale and using semi-skilled workers. Workers had one task each that they had to repeatedly do which is why they did not need to be particularly trained. However, he has been criticized for his idea; Fords mass-production system. The regulation theory explained that as a capitalist production system, Fordism is alienating and involved deskilling; therefore, Fordism is unable to overcome workers dissatisfaction. Another argument is that it is unable to overcome consumer dissatisfaction. Both arguments concludes that during 1970s Fordism was in crisis. Many solutions were adopted to solve the crisis of Fordism with a development of wide range of better quality products with neo-Fordism, McDonaldism, and post-Fordism. Also the process of de-industrialisation began around 1970s with a decline in employment among the manufacturing and industrial jobs and an increase in employment in service sector jobs. However, de-industrialisation was not just about the end of particular jobs but the dismantling of social and cultural relations in some societies. For example, manufacturing employments were sites of masculine occupational cultures and part of working class male identity. De-industrialisation was evident to large number of unemployment in industrial areas in the UK which led to a crisis of masculinity for working class men. On the other hand theorist such as Bell (1973) saw this as a positive way in The coming of Post-industrial society. He argued that it will be less alienating than in industrial societies. Class may also lose its power as knowledge and professional will have power rather than the anachronistic industrial ruling class. When people are unemployed, they get involved in the labour market. Labour marketsÃ works through the interaction between workers and employers. They try to understand employers demand and workers supplies by looking at pattern of employment, income, wages or often pattern of racism and sexism that are existing in society. These patterns of discrimination have led to what is called dual or segmented labour markets. Trade unions are part of fight against such processes in our society. They provide an important function for millions of workers. They protect workers from being exploited and making sure they have fair wages and working conditions. While work occupies a main role in our lives, its social significance extends beyond our personal identities and daily activities. It is closely involved with other social institutions, social structures, and social processes, especially social inequality.