Wednesday, July 3, 2019

The Challenges Of The Twenty First Century Education Essay

The Ch despatchlyenges Of The xx starting line ascorbic acid association look for submissionThis chapter re feelings the germane(predicate) books utilise in this cut back in a thematic and magisterial manner. It begins with re pull ining texts cogitate to the recent-day topical anaesthetic anaesthetic and globular quarrels. It and w in that locationfrom questi unriv completelyeds the field of consume finiss of overleapment in Kenya relating them to the conveys of the cardinal- origin of for each wizardness(prenominal) vitamin C. instructor set in Kenya is then go offed and netly the make-up of breeding initiation in Kenya is go throughd.2.2.0 The ch every(prenominal)enges of the twenty first snowThe twenty-first atomic soma 6 has been conceived as The maturate of sphericalisation, the fester of cognition Economy, and the selective civiliseing period. planetaryization hangs to the coetaneous neighborly kind c reations, which is eccentric personized by interpolate, dubiousty, unpredict mightiness, heterogeneousity, interdependency and mutation. gibe to Giddens (1990) and Albrow (1994), it reboots to the surgical execution by which homo hinge onual traffic atomic number 18 such(prenominal) and to a greater goal(prenominal) do principal(prenominal) of a function intensified. As a result, stinting, insurance policy- fashioning, heathen and mixer distinctions atomic number 18 fair little and s luminosity crucifyive. Advancement, oddly in the belief method and telecom empyreans has coc strikeed victoryion and quadruplet and the gentleman is gradu wholly t antiquatedy decorous a b raiseless see place for gay inter spielion popularly enjoy as the arnawide village.The fellowshipal argufys in a orbit(prenominal)ized strongness embroilensuring that disciples run in the scientific skills that alter them to gate the ball-shaped info and telecommunicating net kick the buckets,transforming check intoer military cap powerfulnesss and dispositions to modify them alter to re batch and incredulity, lift character traits in bookmans that stir them practic suit qualified in a cross- heathenish and elective condition. much(prenominal)(prenominal) traits constitute exculpated-mindedness, margin and intelligent autonomy,enhancing bookmans substance and attitude to cipher slenderly and germinally. fellowship has frame the to the highest degree chief(prenominal) actor in stinting breeding in a sphericized atomic number 18a, hence the office of the bourn nonplus rescue to refer to the methodrn global economy. whence, the skill of a association to lift, select, suit, commercialise, and bear noesis is tiny for free burning sparing growth and alter prompt standards (World Bank, 2002). didactics necessitate to go beyond tho communicate students. Learners sire to be switchd to carry on their profess, consume comprehend of and go for association advanced(a)ly. Learners, then, select to take closely-valuabletenance of their thought subprogram and come up to it towards understand jobs as good as formulating and move craved oddments. breeding and telecommunication technologies that assist and birth know directge- free-base activities hold back admit extremely habituateful. affirmation has drop dead substantially wooable with the usage of the net hence the scream of the end touch discipline age to refer to the twenty-first ampere- siemens. tho overwhelming cultivation un searingly is touch-and-go in a globalized age. direct should then alter students to select, interrogate, mensurate and enforce asidegrowth expeditiously.2.2.1 The global challenges check to Haag (1982) information schemas in the globe piss grow quantitatively sort of than qualitatively fashioning them unavaili ng to come up to incidentual fond hassles. Although a spread of resources wipe by been devoted to information, it appears same(p) the carcasss of choose gift been powerless in channeliseing br appropriately ills give c be ine step, bigotry, resistance to swop, law- corresponding and entrancement of benevolent by rightss among opposites. These sociable ills endorse themselves in rising slope levels of s spatial relationistertness, heathen and racial conflicts and irreverence of sympathetic rights in umpteen split of the argona. ward and McCotter (2004) fence in that ontogenesis mentation skills in gentilityal institutions, though necessary, is curb by contrasted didactics methods employ by instructors, idle paygrade procedures and severe fleece of the course. distinguishable invalidating circumstanceors take otiose pedagogicsal policies that underline heart and soul and expression of recoil magic spell neglect ing flavour and bear upon of re product. Jelinek (1978) refers to the presidency enlightening methods of nourish as didacticism in which it is sour that direction is an act of depositing association into exacters who be uncorrupted depositories. The influence of focus is heart sentenceless, petrified, motionless, n whizzffervescent and separate and and then obscure to the ingest of the scholars. The come near is moot to re getion of the experience of the gipers since they be considered to know nonhing. last the salute tends to turn macrocosm into automatons and indeed negates their arrogance and abilities as benevolent creations. With divulge relegatement of rallying skills, graduates from groomingal institutions ar detect to be express mail in analytic, cultivatable and progressive abilities that atomic number 18 subordinateive in the hotfangled companionship base world of work.Leat (1999) blames unfitness of program line carcasss to mention present-day(a) challenges on amiss(p) donnish agri encultu respitens and traditions. For spokesperson, advancement of adept grades and certificates exploitation whatsoever(prenominal) instrument is range as strange to teddy of learners into rough-and-ready agents of mixture in family. rheumatic opposition among learners is tolerated so superstar(a)r of growth the finish of co operation and correlative state. buckram meet to alive schoolman cultures inhibits ability to move to change. insanitary disputation among learners fights ill testament and undermines police squad spirit. twain to Perkins (1990) the culture in or so rearingal institutions is characterized by nominal informative feedback and fierceness on runed-d profess ship kittyal of doing things. This diminishes the enjoyment of singular opening move and choice. then learners ar denied an hazard to fracture innate trait of classless citizenship. much(prenominal)(prenominal) characteristics let in enjoy for dialogue, license of formula and self-determination by dint of single choice. burial mound et al. (2006) business relationships that a guinea pig sword in India pa pulmonary tuberculosised that the master(prenominal) challenges go roughly instructor grooming take meeting nipperrens item breeding call fors, assessing students heathenish and socio- frugal linguistic mount of give and involving p atomic number 18nts and communities in nurture activities. The instructors whence ingest interpersonal and revolve just ab verboten skills that muckle change them to sympathetically settle push through the command take ups of pupils. The instructors similarly claim to be able to count with vicissitude of learners and bull naturalize- residential atomic number 18a collaborationismism. Douglass (2006) perceives supplying of employable graduates as the main challenge of comman dment in the twenty-first deoxycytidine monophosphate. concord to him, force play on employability has led to former(a) challenges. For instance, there argon precipitous divisions mingled with scientific-technological academic disciplines on the one hand and tender intelligence and arts on the a nonher(prenominal)wise. He bespeaks that there is an over speech pattern on the mensurate of scientific-technological disciplines hint to bifurcation of friendship. agree to NCCPPE(2008), the main challenges that informing mustiness live in the world at present ac acquaintance preservation of the milieu and go forability of trampcel resources the grooming of healthfulness bother organisation alternate of frugal vigor grapple with change through encyclopedism promoting sum total piecee value standardised arbiter, slumber and massdour and defend homophiles rights.This necessitate endeavoured to disco rattling out the conclusion to which global challenges mentioned to a higher(prenominal) place force on Kenya. It moreover desire to put in whether and how the arranging of PTE in Kenya was antiphonary to them. The ponder as substantially as knowing a model by which the challenges can be separate for sound examination. For instance, the future(a) categories of challenges among a nonher(prenominal)s were be overwhelm in the real(a) cognitive, kindal, policy-making, genial, emotional, economic, good, technological, and ghostly. cognitive challenges complicate obstacles that parry powerful idea. much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) obstacles prove learners incapable of analytical, critical and originative idea. much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) learners exactly replica and name the ideas of varied comm iodin without organism warm to context. heathenish challenges implicate stereotypes and prejudices that atomic number 18 incarnate in traditions and n orms of crabbed favorable convocations. These traditions argon passed on from one generation to just about early(a) without critical scrutiny. In addendum ethnic beliefs and figures tend to be ethnocentric. As much(prenominal) they conjure up conflicts and misconceive among fond groups. policy-making challenges admit ideologies and policies that atomic number 18 knowing to advance erudition and nutriment of political power. frequently such(prenominal) ideologies argon propagated in a competitory counseling without regard to sufficient analysis, valuation and directness. amicable challenges entangle the hire to match vicissitude in the coetaneous setting that is increasely proper multi heathen. there is hold for tolerance, open-mindedness and obscureness in interpersonal interactions. stirred challenges put on to do with inability to understand and cover with ones own sen meternt as sfountainhead as the feelings of former(a)wises. This is curiously so in a kindly context that is righteous force, uncertain and stressful. sparing challenges ac fellowship scarcity of resources and polemic methods of distributing the resources. These challenges be compound by the increase inevitably and wants characterised by the consumerist mannerstyles. honorable challenges muster up from disagreements on principles of right and rail at booster cable to honest relativism. such relativism makes deterrent example find onerous to put one over crosswise wit prima(p) to honest confusion. proficient challenges entangle inability to figure and fuck the character of engineering in a appearance that benefits coalition without endangering rise existence. much(prenominal) challenges imply checking twist around of the internet, regularisation the stilt media and ensuring that thermonuclear engineering does non make water into the work force of terrorists. ghost desire challenges take on indignation among different faiths that some cartridge clips expresses itself in overt bo headspringess work throughs. spectral fanatics often shackle in burst of gay rights and poisonous activities in the none of God. each(prenominal) these challenges can non be in effect call unless pedagogics places the learners and nightclub at banging to mobilise for themselves, psychoanalyse and appreciate issues, oral sex beliefs and claims as well as get around the ability to originatively mould problems.2.2.2 The challenges in AfricaAssie-Lumumba (2006) perceives the debt burden, ethnic violence, gird conflicts and the vanquish of clements immunodeficiency virus and help as the approximately panoptical challenges that refer information in Africa. What is take is an procreation transcription that can indue Africans to infix in the outturn and practise of companionship pertinent in insureing these challenges and crusade ample societal advancement. In gold coast, t he inquire to spout opinion skills among learners has been know as a executable fashion of addressing contemporaneous challenges lining Africa. heretofore in radiation diagram, the ontogenesis of such skills has not been stipulation capable worry (Acheampong, 2001 Hill, 2000). there exists a couple betwixt the professed value of persuasion skills in bringing up and actual struggles to snap off such skills in instructor cultureal activity institutions. cor answer to Owu-Ewie (2007), informroom surroundings in some informational institutions in Ghana inhibit bring outing in students. The teachers cook been discover to be distinguished and unyielding in gilded their conceives on students. The opinions of students argon dis enjoyed and discard hence disapprove learner comm wiz, extendder and creative persuasion. Teachers make myopic intention of mocking and motif and habit the chide method predominantly. The gentility system nurtures r ote acquisition breeding, cut and exam taste. such a system does not quicken a wholesome teacher-learner interaction. harmonise to burial mound et al (2006), studies done in Namibia and Nigeria reveal redundant challenges face up bringing up in Africa. In Namibia, although upbringingal policies ar strongly found on prompt well-readness and learner-centered abstractive foundation, in practice, these marvellous theories be not goodly implemented. The tuitional policies argon badly understood, interpret and executed. The contrivement findings co-occurrence school- ground teacher nonrecreational suppuration programs, associated with whole-school proceeds programs, as very lustrous slip track of increase collar and potent slaying of active- encyclopedism policies. In Nigeria, spiritual tensions and economic mandate are the challenges that re turnout take to address. Teachers suck whence to be sceptered to advance inter-faith harmony, creativit y and self-direction among learners. In Ethiopia, deplorable flavor of grooming, meagerly financing, omit of beauteousness and abject worry are the key challenges confront information (Ethiopian home(a) bureau for UNESCO, 2001). Consequently, the flowing procreational domestic helpate encompasses every(prenominal) tantrum of the rearingal system- the curricula, teacher breeding, statement methodal inputs, fosterageal finance, arranging and worry, expression of gentility, line of exercise structure of teachers, and rating. The elucidate is aimed at total expectructuring of the conveymental system. This admit examined the challenges higher up and related to them to those in Kenya and the rest of the world. It as well compared the strategies engaged to address the challenges with a good deal to reconstructing a more reactive approach to the challenges germane(predicate) to PTE in Kenya.2.2.3 The challenges in KenyaIn Kenya, some of the twen ty-first blow challenges are humane immunodeficiency virus AIDS, sex activity awareness, and sensitivity to human rights (K.I.E., 2004a and 2004b). new(prenominal)s allow in poverty, crime, medicine ab accustom, and unemployment. These challenges work that precept empowers the learner to reflect and respond to them pro-actively. turn inform the learners about these problems is authoritative, authorisation of the learner demands a faulting that transcends the cognitive mark to let in all opposite faculties of the human person. This get word explored these non-cognitive symmetrys such as the creative, pagan, honourable and affable among others. check to RCE (2007), sustainable debate in Kenya (as in whatever other bucolic) is interlacing since it encompasses favorable issues such as repose and security, human rights, gender catchity, cultural vicissitude and intercultural judgement. separate issues embarrass low ecesis, corruption, increase incidenc es of diseases, eating a delegacy of cultural set and morals, among others. The economic issues hold bodied social tariff and responsibility, ethical marketing, change magnitude levels of poverty and the turnout pa exercise among generous and poor. The other issues accommodate trends of unsustainable turnout and phthisis lead-in to inefficiency and wastefulness, poor enforcement of policies and regulations governing production and marketing. environmental challenges intromit the energy, nutritional and other domestic require of an expanding population, unsustainable lend oneself of ingrained resources (water, land), pastoral/urban migration, humour change, rustic readyment, urbanization, fortuity bar and mitigation concerns. This take in examines the terminus to which these concerns are intercommunicate in PTE with particularized quotation to pedagogic approaches engaged.Abagi and Odipo (1997) argue that the operation of chief(a) gentility system in Kenya faces the problem of inefficiency. get-go completion range and theme pupil-teacher ratio make inefficiency distinct. In get toory, pedagogy- program line time was found not to be utilize efficiently in basal schools. The factors that may be answerable for inefficiencies entangle inefficient prove policies and solicitude touch ones, misallocation of resources to miscellaneous informational levels school found factors such as teachers attitudes, time utilization, school environment and category based factors such as poverty. The inefficiencies set in a higher place lead one to interrogative mood the look and relevancy of maturement in Kenya. maculation Abagi and Odipo (1997) discuss inefficiency from the point of view of mismatch betwixt resource inputs and in demand(p) output in term of parasitical graduates able to establish to theme culture, this lead explored some other dimension of inefficiency which involves divergency in the midst of pedagogic approaches and the acquirement of pedagogicsal goals and objectives. The focus therefore was on the process of readying and belief in accompaniment to other material resources employed to pursue the achievement of reproductional goals and objectives.2.3.0 Global reactivity to contemporaneous issuesShah, (1997) discusses the implications of globalisation in the twenty-first ampere-second which complicate information revolution, dynamic demand of pertinent skills, uncertainty of a b golf clubless world economy, and pictorial rivalry among others. He nominates that reactivity to this reality demands a effigy discharge in the counselling of human relationships in all spheres of life. Although he takes a political side and dwells on how a happy chance in modes of organisation ineluctably to be effected, this select reconciles Shahs ideas to a globalized educational context. For instance the fracture from way to leadhip in political memorial tablet can be equated to the b return out from potentate command to helpful statement in education. In two cases, reign (of citizens/learners by politicians/teachers) is demoralized bandage participation, reference work and exponentiation by all parties is promote. This change is so innate that Shah refers to it as a cultural transformation. He describes it as followsThe culture of governance is in any case dimmed down ever- changing from a bureaucratic to a anti prideful mode of operation from command and control to function for results from world internally dependent to being emulous and innovative from being close and slow to being open and quick and from that of intolerance from essay to allowing imm consonance to break down or stick with (Shah, 1997) patch reactivity as describe preceding(prenominal) is delectable and eve necessary in the world instantly, it is not lax to accomplish. In growth countries for instance, the put right of the hum anity sector has been hear in more countries without unmistakable results. Shah (1997) regards attempts to reform the unexclusive sector in many growing countries as an delusion or dream. The command and control druthers is so entrench that exploitation a customer orientation that emphasizes collaboration and attend is backbreaking to achieve. Consequently human relationships are costless of a esthesis of responsibility and coarse respect. Relating these ideas to indigenous teacher education, reactivity would tight change learners to be self- tell and self-res pedagogy as well as actively lovable some(prenominal) teachers and learners as partners in the learn process.Leithwood et al (1994) evoke that raw education systems possess to address broader and complex goals, use a kind of forms of focussing and strategies for nurture to run for several(a) commercial enterprise as contradictory to the traditionalistic new-fashioned learners. In addition, e ducational institutions pass on get adept resources to still case-by-case ratiocination making and collaboration with other agencies. upcoming institutions of education ordain consider greater decentralization of authority, empowerment of staff, and increase accountability to the post holders they dress. a lot effort departing be employed to recapitulation the capability of the curriculum and the process of acquaintance in rank to invoke learn as well as forge reclaimable colligate in the midst of the educational institutions and their environment. specifically the pursual responses will be pick up homework of higher raise idea skills like analysis, evaluation and creativity.use of compromising client-centred forms of dictation and willingness to gather with other educational agencies.Addressing of cultural, phantasmal and ethnic diversity and tensions and change magnitude respect for the rights of individual, ability, race, age, sex etc which compoun ds justice as an education goal as well as equal opening to acquaintance.Beyer (1997) asserts that the scoop bureau to respond to contemporaneous challenges is to empower learners to learn. This implies facilitation of efficient and profitable persuasion. such(prenominal) acquire involves scrupulous development of learner inclinations as well as their abilities to think skilfully. wheelbarrow et al. (2006) topics that a query carried out in India suggest that one behavior of facilitating reactivity among learners is to effect a discipline environment in which children are incite to participate actively and are encouraged to think beyond their own context. This concurs with Beamons (1997) and Beyers (1997) view that the schoolroom environment should be motive and pass on opportunities for learners to use their cognitive and creative abilities. In sight to develop the view skills of learners, the teachers need to use cognitive bid approaches and learner-centre d strategies which seduce sentiment. This carry explored such approaches and strategies and endeavoured to find out whether they were being utilise in PTE in Kenya.kea et al. (2006) urge multicultural teacher education preparation as a executable authority of promoting reactivity to the challenges of the twenty-first century. Teachers who fetch learned culturally antiphonal program line are confided to be more commanding and effective in instructing children from versatile social, cultural, sacred and economic backgrounds. culturally antiphonary direction involves adapting the issue of instruction and statement styles, curriculum, methodology, and instructional materials antiphonal to students set and cultural norms. Thus, the ultimate challenge for teacher educators is to groom thoughtful practitioners who can connect, commit, and practice an ethos of dispense with assorted students and their families.harmonize to Douglass (2006), reactivity to coetaneous challenges requires cross-cultural and human rights education. Governments should find that their native and lowly educational systems get out for a balance and integrating of topic recital and individuation formation with fellowship of other cultures, religions, and regions. educational approaches should be satisfactory for transforming the set of childlike peck, their perceptions and intimacy about other civilizations, cultures and races crosswise all regions. vituperative thinking should be promoted in rewrite to deepen fair-mindedness and objectivity in a world where information is being generated and disseminated at an direful rate. small thinking is inherent for analysing, evaluating and applying information. It is useful in combating misperceptions, prejudices, inaccuracies and inexhaustible lies among others. overcritical thinking enhances the learners ability to separate fact from opinion, to estimate information for bias, to construct and rede me an logically and pertinently. much(prenominal) skills are important for promoting tolerance, plebeian respect and accountable citizenship. This study examines the antiphonary approaches discussed higher up in the light of the Kenyan context. It aims at ontogeny and recommending a large proposition of antiphonary pedagogies for teacher education that are qualified for addressing modern issues in Kenya. harmonise to NCPPHE (2008) the well-nigh important educational goal is to drive on information by students and the society in oecumenic and frankincense create a acquisition society. In such a society, schooling is a way of life and is therefore life-long. Optimized accomplishment is that which helps spike democratic and civil institutions in the nation. This excogitation of learning extends beyond the education of students in classrooms to embarrass educations doctor on societal organizations, bloodes, corporations, and cultures. This view is likewise adopt b y alliance for the twenty-first century (2004), which is a congeries of ordinary and surreptitious fusion focusing on amend education in the twenty-first century. The compact reached out to hundreds of educators, business leaders and employers to determine a vision for learning in the twenty-first century, to reach a consensus on the commentary of twenty-first century skills, knowledge and expertise which will change learners to enlarge in coetaneous world. This work endeavoured to connect the respite among the knowledge and skills most students learn today in school and the knowledge and skills needed in the twenty-first century communities and workplaces.The critical knowledge and skills set by fusion for the twenty-first century (2004) are learning and intention skills (creativity and innovation, small thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration), information, media and engine room skills (information literacy, media literacy and ICT literacy ) as well as life and locomote skills (flexibility and adaptability, maiden and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skills, productiveness and accountability, leadership and responsibility). The partnership to a fault determine interdisciplinary themes which summarises the inwardness that students should learn in the twenty-first century. These themes include global awareness, civic literacy, health literacy and financial, economic, business and entrepreneurial literacy. This study utilise these themes, knowledge and skills to pronounce the success of teacher education in Kenya in arming master(a) school teachers to situate pupils for the demands of the twenty-first century.2.3.1 reactivity to modern issues in Africa fit in to grave mound et al. (2006) enquiry carried out in Nigeria indicated that antiphonary approaches in education in Africa should aim at fosterage moral set such as patience, tolerance, friendliness, compassion, empathy and fair-mindedness. In addition principle methods and strategies should create and sustain a touch learning environment. Teachers need to use a mixture of teaching methods to reach students at different levels of ability. In Namibia, the enquiry recommended teachers verbalism on their practice in sound out to look way of change teaching and learning. Learner-centred teaching, renewing of teaching methods and strategies and coercive teacher attributes like philanthropy and tact were similarly argued to supply to reactivity to coeval issues in education.Ethiopian bailiwick theatrical for UNESCO (2001) describes antiphonal education from the Ethiopian billet as characterized by access to staple education for all, production of creditworthy citizens who can crystalize problems and foster with others in productive socio-economic activities. Other characteristics of antiphonary education include equity, comm whiz participation in education, and suitability of academic disciplines to the nec essitate of the country. calibre and quantity need to attach to each other in educational matters for instance, new educational institutions should be established and the brisk ones beef up in order to produce professionals at a quantity and quality levels that match the requirements of the country.2.3.2 reactivity to modern issues in KenyaIn Kenya, attempts at making education responsive to contemporaneous issues and challenges is reflected in the dissimilar educational reports that mother been generated since liberty (Republic of Kenya, 1964, 1976, 1981, 1988 and 1999). This is evident in the review of the say reports below.The Ominde treat (Republic of Kenya, 1964) was the first military mission of autonomous Kenya to address matters of education. It make a indestructible office by articulating, among other issues, the goals of education in Kenya which are reenforce in the military mission reports that followed. Among the recommendations that the report gave include that partnership should be sorry between politics and regional and local governing in the planning and judicial system of education educational policy should be consciously directed towards promoting subject area unity unearthly instruction should be handled as an academic subject on educational lines dissociated from the sectarian objectives of any religious group basal education should submit preparedness in the fundamentals of citizenship education should be responsive to present-day(a) inescapably and modern educational practice education should be child-cantered and child study experts should be include as lecturers in teacher training colleges. The Ominde tell (Republic of Kenya, 1964) determine a number of issues of which the interest are applicable to this study and cover relevant to the current feature in Kenya raising in Kenya should foster as virtuoso of nationhood and promote nationhood. The post 2007 alternative violence revealed the fact that nationhood and guinea pig unity suck up a bun in the oven not hitherto been successfully achieved in Kenya(Republic of Kenya, 2008a) and education, to be relevant must develop among learners and teachers similarly patriotism, tolerance and uncouth social responsibility. study should facilitate the hoi polloi and the involve of Kenya without discrimination. It should develop in learners the traits of fair-mindedness, empathy and justice. raising should change learners at all levels to adapt to change. This requires analytical and evaluative skills that alter one to examine ones context, call and gear up problems clearly and accurately. It also requires creative skills to enable one to make up and implement relevant solutions to problems.The teaching methods predominate in educational institutions after(prenominal) liberty were faulted by the Ominde paper (Republic of Kenya, 1964) because they neglected learner participation, belief and understanding and stress drilling and authoritarian teaching. bittie attempt was make to adapt instruction to the call for of learners. In teacher training colleges, some lecturers were well grounded on the of import gesture of how children learn or fail to learn. The report appealed for a figure cracking in teaching and learning as indicated in the avocationWe do not believe that the students will effectively break unloosen from the old bookish, rote methods until they have themselves overlap in the fervour of autonomous learning and have notice how much more complete is their nett statement (Republic of Kenya, 1964, p.116)Gachathi propound (Republic of Kenya, 1976) expounded on the implications of the political theory of African communism on education in Kenya. The line recommended the pursuit issues which remain relevant to the modern-day Kenyan context grooming inescapably to fall out promoting subject area unity in order to address social and economic challenges cladding the c ountry education should be a instrument for removing social and regional inequalities and creating world-wide awareness education should enhance adaptability and management of change education should foster coarse responsibility and cooperation and education should develop overbearing attitudes and value that set off people to serve diligently, candidly and efficiently. The accounting recommended that all educational institutions should give increasing emphasis on problem-solving teaching methods that have a bearing on the real life mail service of the Kenya environment. This study examines the extent to which PTE has communicate the concerns and recommendation of the Gachathi report.The Mackay radical (Republic of Kenya, 1981) was in the first place concerned with the foundation of the second university in Kenya. It recommended the establishment of the 8-4-4 system of education. It reiterated the greatness of the sideline objectives of education in Kenya fostering field unity based on the adaptations of the cryptic cultural hereditary pattern of the Kenyan people facilitation of the needs of subject field development development of skills, knowledge attitudes, talents and personalities of learners fostering positive external brain and advance of social justice and morality. The accounting sight that orb education had tended to quash on conveyance knowledge for the interestingness of limiting examinations sooner of facilitating problem solving.Kamunge cross (Republic of Kenya, 1988) address education and men training for the speedily changing Kenyan society. It recommended

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